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Academic writing requires the citing of sources used, both in the body of the paper (referred to as "in-text citations") and in a list at the end of the paper (referred to as a bibliography, reference list, or works cited page).
There are several citation styles, and the one to use depends on the discipline in which you are writing. Thus, you might use APA style for a paper in psychology and MLA style for a paper in your English class. The tabs on this page contain resources that explain the importance of citation, as well as the various citation styles, the disciplines which use them, and how to format each style.
If you are unsure which citation style you should use for a specific paper, check the syllabus for that course and/or ask your professor.
Cite any source you that you use for information - books and articles, of course, but also interviews, websites, TV programs, and even tweets. Whenever you are not sure whether something should be cited, err on the side of caution, and cite your source.
For information about Chicago citation style for other types of sources, check out the videos linked below, which will open in a new window.
ACS (American Chemical Society) style is commonly used in chemistry. Always check with your professor if you are uncertain about which style to use.The following resources explain the conventions of this style.
CSE (Council of Science Editors) style is commonly used in biology. Always check with your professor if you are uncertain about which style to use. The following resources explain the conventions of this style.
ASA (American Sociological Association) style is commonly used in sociology. Always check with your professor if you are uncertain about which style to use. The following resources explain the conventions of this style.
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