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Beginning Monday, March 23, Hoover Library will be CLOSED until further notice. Virtual reference services (use the "ASK US" or "CHAT" button) will be available from 1 PM - 9 PM Sunday, 9 AM - 9 PM Monday-Thursday, and 9 AM - 4 PM Friday. Hours are subject to change at any time. Please see our Hours page for current building availability. For more information, see the McDaniel College COVID-19 Information Page
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Citation Guides: Citation Help

You will find information on how to cite your sources in various formats

Citation Tutorials and Resources

Academic writing requires the citing of sources used, both in the body of the paper (referred to as "in-text citations") and in a list at the end of the paper (referred to as a bibliography, reference list, or works cited page).

What style should I use?

There are several citation styles, and the one to use depends on the discipline in which you are writing. Thus, you might use APA style for a paper in psychology and MLA style for a paper in your English class. The tabs on this page contain resources that explain the importance of citation, as well as the various citation styles, the disciplines which use them, and how to format each style.

If you are unsure which citation style you should use for a specific paper, check the syllabus for that course and/or ask your professor.

What information should I cite?

  • Direct quotes - Always cite when you use someone else's exact words.
  • A paraphrase or summary - Cite when you use someone else's ideas, even if you express them in your own words.
  • Information which may be unfamiliar to your reader - Always consider your audience; even "common knowledge" should be cited if your reader might not be familiar with it.
  • Statistics - Always cite the source of statistical information, so your reader can confirm it.

What sources should I cite?

Cite any source you that you use for information - books and articles, of course, but also interviews, websites, TV programs, and even tweets. Whenever you are not sure whether something should be cited, err on the side of caution, and cite your source.

To get started:

  • Determine the citation style your instructor wants you to use (APA, MLA, etc.).
  • Identify what type of document you are citing (book, book chapter, reference work entry, scholarly journal article, website, government document, etc.). For help with this, consult a reference librarian.
  • Use the resources in this guide to find a sample citation for that document type and style.

If you do not see a video or tutorial in the space below, use the login screen to sign in with your McDaniel ID.

If you do not see a video or tutorial in the space below, use the login screen to sign in with your McDaniel ID.

If you do not see a video or tutorial in the space below, use the login screen to sign in with your McDaniel ID.

If you do not see a video or tutorial in the space below, use the login screen to sign in with your McDaniel ID.

APA (American Psychological Association) style is commonly used in psychology, as you might expect, as well as in linguistics, economics, criminology, business, and education. Always check with your professor if you are uncertain about which style to use. The following resources explain the conventions of this style.

If you do not see a video or tutorial in the space below, use the login screen to sign in with your McDaniel ID.

Chicago style is commonly used in history and anthropology. Always check with your professor if you are uncertain about which style to use. The following resources explain the conventions of this style.

If you do not see a video or tutorial in the space below, use the login screen to sign in with your McDaniel ID.

For information about Chicago citation style for other types of sources, check out the videos linked below, which will open in a new window.

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is commonly used in English studies (language and literature), foreign languages and literature, cultural studies, philosophy, and religious studies. Always check with your professor if you are uncertain about which style to use. The following resources explain the conventions of this style.

If you do not see a video or tutorial in the space below, use the login screen to sign in with your McDaniel ID.

ACS

ACS (American Chemical Society) style is commonly used in chemistry. Always check with your professor if you are uncertain about which style to use.The following resources explain the conventions of this style.

CSE

CSE (Council of Science Editors) style is commonly used in biology. Always check with your professor if you are uncertain about which style to use. The following resources explain the conventions of this style.

ASA

ASA (American Sociological Association) style is commonly used in sociology. Always check with your professor if you are uncertain about which style to use. The following resources explain the conventions of this style.