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*Kinesiology (Exercise Science): APA Citation Basics

APA Citation Basics

What is plagiarism? Representing other people’s ideas as if they are your own, not crediting ideas you use from other people.

How do I avoid plagiarism? Cite all sources you use in your paper or project, using the appropriate citation style for your discipline (for example, APA style).

When do I need to provide a citation?

  1. When you are directly quoting another person's words from their article, book, website, etc. (i.e., copying the exact wording and pasting it/typing it into your project/paper)

    Examples:

    • Short quotation

      According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time"(p. 199).

    • Long quotation (more than 40 words)

      Jone's (1998) study found the following:

      Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

  2. When you are summarizing/paraphrasing another person's ideas (using their ideas but writing it in your own words).
    • Short example

      Original quotation:

      "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

      Paraphrase:

      According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

    • Long example

      Original quotation:

      "While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement in skyscraper engineering so far, it's unlikely that architects and engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building. The question is: Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel claims that existing technology could produce a 500-story building." From Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990): 15.

      Paraphrase:

      The Sears Tower is a world marvel, and it is unknown how much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise. However, the design of one twice as tall as the Sears Tower is already on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over 500 stories (Bachman 15).


Sample APA Paper (annotated)

Examples above based on materials on plagiarism and APA style at the Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab

EPE-Related Citation Examples

Example 1:  Journal Article

In-Text Citation

According to the ecological perspective, you must consider the interaction of all elements (body type, motivation, temperature, ball size) to understand the emergence of a motor skill (kicking) (Roberton, 1989).

Entry in References List

Roberton, M.A. (1989).  Motor development: Recognizing our
          roots, charting our future. Quest, 41, 213-223.

Example 2: Book

In-Text Citation

Any individual we might observe is more likely to be above or below average, or to achieve a milestone earlier or later than average, than to be exactly average. In addition, children can arrive at the same point in development by very different pathways (Siegler & Jenkins, 1989).

Entry in References List

Siegler, R.S., & Jenkins, E.A. (1989). How children discover new
          strategies.
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


Examples from:  Haywood, K.M., & Getchell, N. (2005). Life span motor development. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

APA & Citing Web Resources

For web pages, reports, or documents (non-periodical), you need to list as much of the following information as possible.  Remember, you may have to look around to find the information -

     Author(s)

     Date of publication

     Title of document

     Web address

Example (citation for source of paraphrased info above):

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., Brizee, A., Keck, R. (2011, May 10). Reference list: electronic sources (web publications).  Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/


Example above based on materials on plagiarism and APA style at the Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab

DISCLAIMER

APA style examples above intended for illustration of concepts, not necessarily exact, correct APA style.  Always consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association as the final authority.

Also, when in doubt, ask your Professor!